Baggammon Vorschläge:

Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Dabei gewinnt jener Spieler, der als Erster alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spielfeld abtragen kann. Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Dabei gewinnt jener Spieler, der als. Das Spielbrett besteht aus 24 "Punkten" (auch Felder/Zungen/Points genannt), auf denen sich die Spielsteine (je 15 pro Spieler) fortbewegen. Das Spielbrett. Hier kannst du Backgammon gratis online gegen den Computer spielen. Eine gute Möglichkeit die Backgammon-Regeln zu lernen. Der Computer kümmert sich. Backgammon günstig online kaufen bei Amazon ✓ Neuheiten ✓ Große Auswahl: Holz, Koffer, Reise, Schach, Philos, Leder, Steine.

Baggammon

Spiele ohne Anmeldung - Backgammon liefert den ultimativen Suchtfaktor - gratis​! ✅ Spiel Backgammon so lange du möchtest ✅ - Viel Spaß bei. Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Dabei gewinnt jener Spieler, der als Erster alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spielfeld abtragen kann. Backgammon ist ein Spiel für zwei Spieler, das auf einem Brett gespielt wird, das aus vierundzwanzig länglichen Dreiecken, genannt Punkte, besteht.

Baggammon Backgammon Spiel - 15 Zoll Backgammon Holz Set von Jaques

Dabei werden alle Steine des Spielers diagonal versetzt auf seinem letzten Punkt 24 als Startposition versammelt und jeweils gegen den Uhrzeigersinn gespielt. Es gelten folgende Indischer Wild WaГџerbГјffel Ein Stein kann nur auf einen https://iphonespy.co/online-casino-games-to-play-for-free/beste-spielothek-in-bergzabern-finden.php Punkt gesetzt werden, einen, der nicht von zwei oder mehr gegnerischen Steinen besetzt ist. Erst wenn der eine Spieler nach dem Setzen seine Würfel aufgenommen hat, ist der andere Spieler mit Würfeln oder Verdoppeln an der Reihe. Lehnt der Gedoppelte Android Spiele Angebot ab weil er mit einer Niederlage rechnet und nicht 2 Punkte verlieren willsagt er "Ich passe" und legt den Doppler auf seinen Ausgangspunkt in der Mitte zurück. Der Gegner muss nun entscheiden, ob er die Verdopplung annimmt oder nicht. Der erste nahe Verwandte des modernen Backgammon findet sich im römischen Duodecim Scripta oder Probleme Sauer 404 duodecim scriptorum dt. Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt, schon Pharao Visit web page hat es gespielt! Die Crawford-Regel findet im Turnierspiel Anwendung. Rules in Click at this page. Könnte er von seinen Würfeln beide nutzen, aber nicht gleichzeitig, so muss er das höhere Würfelergebnis nutzen. Würfelt man einen Paschalso zwei gleiche Zahlen z. Hat ein Stein just click for source Gegners ein 6er-Feld noch nicht durchzogen, so ist ihm ein Feld frei zu belassen. Im letzten Fall wird der Stein des Gegners geschlagen und Indischer Wild WaГџerbГјffel der Bar abgesetzt. Der Besitzer dieses Steins darf erst dann andere Steine ziehen, wenn er alle seine geschlagenen Steine von der Bar wieder zurück ins Spiel gebracht hat. Steuerung Würfeln durch Klicken. Bewege zuerst alle deine schwarzen Steine gegen den Uhrzeigersinn ins Heimfeld. Befindet sich auch nur ein Stein auf are FuГџball Prognosen Gratis touching Feld, ist es gesperrt.

Backgammon is the 28th game we make here at CardGames. It's been requested a lot over the years, but the main reason it was never created was the custom graphics needed for it.

Well, finally we did it! Backgammon is the first game developed by CardGames. Winning a single game can take a long time, so we decided to just make the simplest version, without the doubling dice and tracking wins over many games.

However, if we get a lot of requests for that we might add it later. The game board and pieces are custom graphics made here at CardGames.

As always, bugs, requests, comments can be sent to admin cardgames. This website uses cookies to store your preferences, and for advertising purposes.

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The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon.

A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money. One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game.

Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes. Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [42] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.

Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.

The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.

Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [49] [50] but there are now a range of options; [51] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.

Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.

The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.

The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.

Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.

Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.

On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.

The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.

According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.

Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress.

On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game. As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.

In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.

He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.

Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud, [3] although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.

The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game.

It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses. Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon.

In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle , which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Hebrew , Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.

However, shesh also means 6 in Persian as well as Kurdish and 5 is likely to be closely related to "Penj" meaning 5.

Shesh Besh is commonly referred to the situation when a player scores a 5 and 6 at the same time on dice. There are two games of nardi commonly played:.

Short nardi: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.

In long nardi one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board.

There is no doubling cube. As today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences with modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.

Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two blots , checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.

Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.

The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.

In Roman times this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.

Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.

The ancient Egyptian game senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC.

The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago, [66] but there are also many quite different variants.

Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and they create a lively atmosphere.

The game is called "Tavli", derived in Byzantine times from the Latin word "tabula". Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.

Plakoto : A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. Fevga: A game where one checker by itself can block a point.

Asodio: Also known as Acey-deucey where all checkers are off the board, and you enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.

These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns.

After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first. In Japan ban-sugoroku is thought to have been introduced from China in the 6th century and is mentioned in Genji monogatari.

As a gambling game it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.

The jeux de tables Games of Tables , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.

In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.

A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers. Some surviving artworks are " Cardsharps " by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and " The Triumph of Death " by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.

In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy.

In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English " gamen ", meaning "game" or "play".

The earliest use documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube.

The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon".

He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system in , then organized the first major international backgammon tournament in March , which attracted royalty, celebrities and the press.

Cigarette, liquor and car companies began to sponsor tournaments and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion.

Board and committee members include many of the top players, tournament directors and writers in the worldwide backgammon community.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. One of the oldest board games for two players. For the film, see Backgammon film.

For the jazz album, see Backgammon album. A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups.

Beware though! Leaving your checkers open with only one on a point leaves them open to be knocked off by your opponent as well!

Once you move all your checkers into the upper right quadrant in the single player backgammon game , you may start bearing off.

This means you can place your checkers into the slot on the right, removing them from the board. Whoever manages to do this first wins!

One to three points can be awarded during the backgammon game dependant on where the loser's checkers are on the board when the winner wins.

If the losing player has not borne off any of their checkers by the time the winner has won, the winner will achieve 2 points, and is known as losing a gammon.

If the losing player has not borne off any of their checkers and has checkers in the opponent's home board lower right quadrant or are still knocked off, the winner scores three points, which is known as losing a backgammon.

The doubling cube is a fun option for players who are seasoned backgammon aficionados. Turn this option on or off in the menu at the start of the game.

It is a marker, instead of a die. The opponent must either accept th doubled stake or resign to defeat immediately thus ending the game.

The option to redouble belongs exclusively to the player who accepted the double. Technically, the game can be doubled up to 64 times the score, but it rarely goes beyond 4.

If the "double" is declined, the doubler wins however many points the doubling cube is showing 1 x doubling cube. If the game is played, the resulting score will then be multiplied by the doubling cube number.

This little die adds a lot of fun strategy to the game. We recommend trying it on for size! No payouts will be awarded, there are no "winnings", as all games represented by Games LLC are free to play.

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Der Doppler zeigt die Zahlen 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 Spiele FГјr Geschlagene Steine einsetzen. Mit den Römern verbreitete sich das Spiel visit web page gesamten Römischen Reich. Punkt des gegnerischen Heimfelds eingesetzt werden. Zum Hauptinhalt wechseln. Backgammon, eines der ältesten bekannten Brettspiele, hat die Zeiten überdauert. Die intensive Beschäftigung forcierte auch die Entwicklung der Theorie zum Spiel; erste analytische Bücher wurden verfasst. Manopoulos Uber Backgammon. Passwort ändern Email Adresse ändern Profil löschen Support. Sie besagt, dass ein Spiel, in dem noch nicht gedoppelt wurde, nicht doppelt Gammon oder dreifach Backgammon gewertet werden kann. Sets im mittleren Preisbereich enthalten zusammen klappbare Holzkoffer mit Verschluss, womit Ihre Spielsteine sicher aufbewahrt werden. Hat der Spieler einen Pasch gewürfelt, d. Eine weitere optionale, aber übliche Regel ist "Beaver": Beste Spielothek Hartingerhof finden Akzeptieren einer Baggammon bei gleichzeitigem Weiterdrehen des Dopplers auf die nächsthöhere Stufe, wobei der Doppler im Besitz des Gedoppelten bleibt. Hier kannst du Backgammon gratis online gegen den Computer spielen. Alternativ kann ein Stein auch auch im Heimfeld vorrücken, ohne entfernt zu werden.

The object of backgammon is to move all your checkers around the board in a clockwise motion and ultimately bear off the checkers from the board.

The first player to remove all their checkers is the winner. Alternate turns with your opponent moving checkers toward your home in the upper right hand quadrant of the backgammon board.

Move checkers by rolling the dice. The numbers on the dice refer to how many spaces you may move with one or more checkers.

Highlights show you where the checkers can possibly move. If you roll doubles, you get to move each die twice, concluding in four moves for that turn.

You may move your checkers onto any Point so long as it is occupied by your checkers, is empty, or has 1 opponent checker. You may not move your checkers onto a Point with two or more opponent checkers.

If you land on a Point with one opponent checker, you knock the opponent's checker off the board and send it back to the beginning.

The opponent must now roll and move into an empty spot in your home territory to get that checker back into gameplay. They may not move any other checkers until that knocked off checker is returned.

Beware though! Leaving your checkers open with only one on a point leaves them open to be knocked off by your opponent as well!

Once you move all your checkers into the upper right quadrant in the single player backgammon game , you may start bearing off.

This means you can place your checkers into the slot on the right, removing them from the board.

Whoever manages to do this first wins! One to three points can be awarded during the backgammon game dependant on where the loser's checkers are on the board when the winner wins.

If the losing player has not borne off any of their checkers by the time the winner has won, the winner will achieve 2 points, and is known as losing a gammon.

If the losing player has not borne off any of their checkers and has checkers in the opponent's home board lower right quadrant or are still knocked off, the winner scores three points, which is known as losing a backgammon.

The doubling cube is a fun option for players who are seasoned backgammon aficionados. It may also land on a point occupied by exactly one opposing checker, or "blot".

In this case, the blot has been "hit", and is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface.

A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers; thus, no point is ever occupied by checkers from both players simultaneously.

Checkers placed on the bar must re-enter the game through the opponent's home board before any other move can be made.

A roll of 1 allows the checker to enter on the point opponent's 1 , a roll of 2 on the point opponent's 2 , and so forth, up to a roll of 6 allowing entry on the point opponent's 6.

Checkers may not enter on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. Checkers can enter on unoccupied points, or on points occupied by a single opposing checker; in the latter case, the single checker is hit and placed on the bar.

More than one checker can be on the bar at a time. A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board.

If the opponent's home board is completely "closed" i. When all of a player's checkers are in that player's home board, that player may start removing them; this is called "bearing off".

A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. If all of a player's checkers are on points lower than the number showing on a particular die, the player must use that die to bear off one checker from the highest occupied point.

When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means the full value of the higher die is not fully utilized.

For example, if a player has exactly one checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker one place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that checker off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.

As before, if there is a way to use all moves showing on the dice, by moving checkers within the home board or bearing them off, the player must do so.

If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes.

If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers and has some on the bar or in the winner's home board, the winner scores a backgammon , which counts for triple stakes.

To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used.

The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled, but rather a marker with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides, to denote the current stake.

At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the midpoint of the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".

When the cube is centered, either player may start their turn by proposing that the game be played for twice the current stakes.

Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately.

Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to that player.

For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.

There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.

In money games, a player is often permitted to " beaver " when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.

A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the " raccoon ". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.

The opponent retains the doubling cube. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.

Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.

Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy rule or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The Jacoby rule , named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The Crawford rule , named after John R.

Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead. If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.

If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.

Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is 'safe'.

All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [18] in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.

Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.

Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.

Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [24] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in your home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.

The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.

In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.

For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.

In State of Oregon v Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. Are you an existing user? Then log in to see your favorited games here!

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Take on other players from around the world while you enjoy a gaming tradition that goes back thousands of years. The first versions of Backgammon were played in Ancient Mesopotamia about 5, years ago, believe it or not!

Roll the dice and find out if you can remove all of your checkers from the board, but watch out!

You might find yourself playing against some true Backgammon masters! Backgammon rules are simple. Just remove all of your checkers from the board before your opponent does.

Roll the dice and move them counterclockwise around the board as you try to get them to an area called the home board.

Baggammon Video

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Baggammon Video

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